Blog dedicated to the continuous education in Gynecology and Endocrinology




Abstract: Objective: Placenta human choriocarcinoma JEG-3 cells were used to study the possibility that pituitary growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor type I (IGF-I) act on first trimestr of pregnancy progesterone (P4) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) secretion, cell proliferation and apoptosis. Material and Methods: The JEG-3 cell line was cultured in DMEM without phenol red containing 10% FBS. The cells were plated in 96-well plates at the density of 3 x103 for 24 h and treated with 10, 50, 100, or 200 ng/ml of GH or 10, 30, 100, or 250 ng/ml of IGF-I for 24 h. At the end of the culture period, cell proliferation was measured using the BrdU colorimetric assay and caspase-3 activity, as a marker of apoptosis, was determined by the colorimetric method. Media were frozen for hormone analysis by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Results: We found that the stimulatory activities of GH and IGF-I on both P4 and hCG secretion paralleled the stimulation of cell proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis. Conclusion: Our findings suggest an important role for pituitary GH and IGF-I in normal placental function during the first trimester of pregnancy.

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4) Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Jan;202(1):54.e1-5.

Verspyck E, Borg JY, Roman H, Thobois B, Pia P, Marpeau L.

OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate whether testing for hereditary thrombophilia alone or in combination with second-trimester uterine artery Doppler (UAD) is useful in predicting recurrent complications in patients with previous preeclampsia, placental abruption, or stillbirth. STUDY DESIGN: Between 2001 and 2005, 110 consecutive women were included in the study and received 100 mg of aspirin daily. Adjustment was made for several maternal confounding factors using a logistic regression model. RESULTS: After multivariable logistic regression analyses, only abnormal UAD assessment was significantly associated with recurrent complications (odds ratio, 11.2; 95% confidence interval, 3.8-32.6) Combining the results of UAD and the presence of laboratory markers of thrombophilia failed to improve the accuracy of UAD to predict recurrent complications. CONCLUSION: Hereditary thrombophilia testing is not useful in predicting recurrent complications in subsequent pregnancy.

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Expressional and Epigenetic Alterations of Placental Matrix Metalloproteinase 9(MMP9) of Preeclampsia

Shuang, Lu

Abstract: Preeclampsia is a multisystem disease classically defined on the basis of hypertension and proteinuria. The etiology of the disease remains poorly understood but it is known that it modifies the expression profile of placental genes, including several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The objective of this study was to perform a systematic expression analysis of MMP9 genes in normal and pathological placentas and to pinpoint epigenetic alterations inside MMP9 promoter region. Placentas were obtained from 20 patients with preeclampsia and 18 normal pregnancies. The methylation status of the promoter regions of MMP9 was analyzed with methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes, followed by polymerase chain reaction amplification. Our study found significantly higher expression levels of MMP9 in the first trimester in placental sections of PE and this increased expression was well correlated to promoter demethylation. The percentage of unmethylated -712 sites was higher in preeclampsia patients (90%) compared with controls (44%). In conclusion, this study provides evidence that altered synthesis of MMP9 in preeclampsia placentas may result from epigenetic changes of the methylation status of CpG sites in the promoter regions

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• January, 2010 •

Placental Hormones and identification of pregnancy at risk

Michela Torricelli and Felice Petraglia
Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Pediatric, Obstetrics and Reproductive Medicine, University of Siena, Siena, Italy

A plethora of hormonal changes contribute to the physiological maternal adaptations during human gestation. Placenta represents a major source of hormones playing a relevant role in maternal-fetal physiological interactions, in the reprogramming of the maternal endocrine system, and in the signaling mechanisms that determine the timing of parturition [1-2].Several placental hormone are are hypersecreted in maternal circulation in pathological pregnancies and their excessive release in association with gestational diseases may be part of an adaptive response of placenta to adverse environmental conditions. more

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Effects of intrauterine exposure to synthetic glucocorticoids on fetal, newborn, and infant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in humans: a systematic review.

10) Endocr Rev. 2009 Dec;30(7):753-89.

Tegethoff M, Pryce C, Meinlschmidt G.

BACKGROUND: Synthetic glucocorticoids are commonly used in reproductive medicine. Fetal organ systems are highly sensitive to changes in the intrauterine environment, including overexposure to glucocorticoids. Structural and functional alterations resulting from such changes may persist throughout life and have been associated with diverse diseases. more

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