Are estrogens neuroprotective?
Carp Howard- Facchinetti Fabio
(14th World Congress of Gynecological Endocrinology – March 4-7 2010)
5) Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Feb;35(2):142-8.
OBJECTIVES: A discrepancy in crown-rump length (CRL) and/or nuchal translucency thickness (NT) between monochorionic twins has been found to be associated with an increased risk of twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS). As one of the most plausible mechanisms for increased NT is hemodynamic imbalance and cardiac dysfunction, indirectly manifested by abnormal blood flow in the ductus venosus (DV), we aimed to clarify the role of DV blood flow assessment in identifying those monochorionic twins more prone to develop TTTS. METHODS: We present 99 cases of monochorionic diamniotic twin pregnancies in which CRL, NT and DV blood flow were evaluated at 11-14 weeks’ gestation. RESULTS: Discrepant values of CRL were not predictive of TTTS development. Intertwin NT discrepancy >or= 0.6 mm had a sensitivity of 50.0% and a specificity of 92.0%. The presence of at least one abnormal blood flow waveform in the DV was associated with a relative risk for developing TTTS of 11.86 (95% CI, 3.05-57.45), with a sensitivity of 75.0% and a specificity of 92.0%. The combination of abnormal DV blood flow with NT discrepancy >or= 0.6 mm yielded a relative risk for the development of TTTS of 21 (95% CI, 5.47-98.33). CONCLUSIONS: Both intertwin discrepancy in NT and abnormal flow in the DV in monochorionic twins may represent early manifestations of hemodynamic imbalance between donor and recipient. In these pregnancies, in addition to NT measurement at 11-14 weeks, the Doppler assessment of DV blood flow significantly increases the performance of screening for those at risk of developing TTTS.
3) Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Jan;202(1):40.e1-7.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor 1 (sVEGF R1) and placental growth factor (PlGF) levels in the clinical diagnosis of preeclampsia. STUDY DESIGN: Plasma was collected prospectively from 457 subjects (n = 409 without preeclampsia, n = 48 with preeclampsia) at 20-36 weeks’ gestation. Automated immunoassays were used to measure free sVEGF R1 and free PlGF. RESULTS: Clinical sensitivities of 0.96 and specificities of 0.96 and 0.95 were calculated for sVEGF R1 and PlGF, respectively, for aiding in the diagnosis of preeclampsia. Among subjects with chronic hypertension, sVEGFR1 was dramatically elevated and PlGF decreased in those with superimposed preeclampsia (P < .001 for superimposed preeclampsia vs chronic hypertension for both biomarkers). The ratio of sVEGFR1/PlGF provided a better test to aid in the diagnosis of preeclampsia than either analyte alone (3% false positive rate). CONCLUSION: Free sVEGF R1 and PlGF were useful in differentiating women with preterm preeclampsia from normotensive and hypertensive subjects.
10) Endocr Rev. 2009 Dec;30(7):753-89.
BACKGROUND: Synthetic glucocorticoids are commonly used in reproductive medicine. Fetal organ systems are highly sensitive to changes in the intrauterine environment, including overexposure to glucocorticoids. Structural and functional alterations resulting from such changes may persist throughout life and have been associated with diverse diseases. more
6) Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Dec;201(6):593.e1-3.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare amniovacucentesis to the usual syringe use for amniotic fluid aspiration.
STUDY DESIGN: We compared 2 groups of procedures: 1117 amniocenteses performed with the usual syringe technique and 1219 amniovacucenteses. more