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First trimester serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, free β-human chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A in Spanish women

DGYE-2010-0364.R1 4 pag

Pérez-López, Faustino (contact); Fernández-Alonso, Ana; Valdera-Simbrón, Carlos; Fiol-Ruiz, Gabriel; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Firma; Chedraui, Peter

Abstract: Background. Vitamin D has been implicated in embryo/placental development and growth; however information in this regard is limited or unavailable.

Objective. To assess 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], free ß-human chorionic gonadotropin (ß-hCG) and pregnancy associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) status during pregnancy.

Methods. Serum 25(OH)D, ß-hCG and PAPP-A levels were measured in the first trimester of otherwise healthy Spanish pregnant women (n=488). Rho Spearman coefficients were calculated to determine correlations between analytes.

Results. Median serum 25(OH)D levels for the entire sample was 27.4 ng/mL (interquartile range=12.1). 25(OH)D levels were insufficient (20 to 29.99 ng/mL) and deficient (< 20 ng/mL) in 40.6% and 23.2% respectively, in relation to ethnics, body mass index values, tobacco use and season/gestational age at blood sampling. β-hCG and PAPP-A levels significantly correlated (r2= 0.47) yet neither of them with 25(OH)D levels. Despite this, the three analytes significantly correlated with gestational age at sampling. Conclusion. First trimester 25(OH)D, β-hCG and PAPP-A levels increase with gestational age however placental peptides do not correlate with vitamin D levels, suggesting a non placental 25(OH)D production. More research is required in this regard.

Keywords: Vitamin D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, ß-hCG, PAPP-A, first trimester pregnancy

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Retinol-binding protein 4 in adipose and placental tissue of women with gestational diabetes

DGYE-2010-0272.R2 5

Kuzmicki, Mariusz (contact); Telejko, Beata; Wawrusiewicz-Kurylonek, Natalia; Nikolajuk, Agnieszka; Zwierz-Gugala, Dorota; Jelski, Wojciech; Kolodziejczak, Malgorzata; Zonenberg, Anna; Wilczynski, Jan; Kretowski, Adam; Gorska, Maria; Szamatowicz, Jacek

Abstract: In the present study we evaluated serum levels of retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) and the expression of RBP4, glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ mRNA (using quantitative real time-PCR) in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and placental tissue obtained from patients with gestational diabetes (GDM) and healthy pregnant women. Serum RBP4 concentrations and its expression in SAT were higher in the women with GDM than in the controls (p=0.03). No association between serum or tissue RBP4 and the indices of insulin resistance was noted. In the GDM group serum RBP4 correlated with its mRNA expression in SAT (r=0.67, p=0.007). Stepwise regression analysis revealed that RBP4 mRNA expression in SAT was independently predicted by GLUT4 mRNA expression (β=0.59, p=0.003) and the presence of GDM (β=0.46, p=0.01), whereas RBP4 mRNA expression in VAT was related to PPARγ mRNA expression (β=0.64, p=0.0003) and the patient’s age (β=-0.38, p=0.03). In conclusion, our results suggest that the elevated expression of RBP4 in SAT may contribute to the increase in circulating RBP4 in GDM subjects.

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DGYE-2010-0300 4

Makedou, Kali (contact); Kourtis, A; Giomisi, Athina; Toulis, Konstantinos; Mouzaki, Maria; Anastasilakis, Athanasios; Gerou, Spyridon; Gavana, Elpida; Agorastos, Theodoros

Abstract: Introduction: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether normal pregnancy represents a complex state of oxidative stress, inflammation and insulin resistance.

Subjects and methods: One hundred and six pregnant women, between 24th and 28th week of pregnancy (age 27.9 ± 0.4 years) (study group) and one hundred and six age-matched, healthy, non-pregnant women (control group) participated in the study. Serum levels of glucose, insulin, adiponectin, oxidized LDL (oxLDL) and lipid parameters, i.e. total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), HDL and LDL, were determined. Body Mass Index (BMI) and QUantitative Insulin sensitivity ChecK Index (QUICKI) were also calculated.

Results: Pregnant women presented higher BMI values, insulin and oxLDL serum levels and lower glucose serum levels than controls. Serum levels of lipids (TC, TGs, LDL and HDL) were higher in pregnant women. There was a significant positive correlation of oxLDL to adiponectin (p<0.01) in the study group, but not in the controls, and no other significant correlation with any of the other parameters, in either of groups.

Conclusions: Pregnancy is a state of insulin resistance, oxidative stress and pro-atherogenic hyperlipidemia. High serum levels of HDL may, though, have cardioprotective and antioxidant role in pregnant women.

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Impact of maternal zinc status on fetal growth in an Iranian pregnant population

DGYE-2010-0297.R1 3

Khamseh, Mohammad E (contact); Badakhsh, Mohammad H.; seifoddin, mahsan; Kashanian, Maryam; Malek, Mojtaba; Shafiee, Gita; Baradaran, Hamid R

Abstract: Background. To evaluate the impact of mild to moderate maternal zinc deficiency on birth weight of off springs in a group of Iranian pregnant population.

Materials and Methods. 140 pregnant subjects with no history of medical complications during pregnancy and without any inter-current illness enrolled in the study. Serum zinc concentration, ferritin, Hemoglobin, Iron, and TIBC were measured at the time of delivery. The receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis used to determine plasma zinc cutoff value for comparison.

Results. Of 140 live neonates, 30% were below 2500 gr. Mean serum zinc concentration was 56.60± 17.91µg/dl which indicated mild to moderate zinc deficiency. None of the subjects were anemic. There was an inverse statistically significant relationship between maternal serum zinc concentration and neonatal birth weight.

Conclusion. In this group of Iranian pregnant subjects with mild to moderate zinc deficiency, we observed no relationship between low maternal zinc status and low birth weight infants.

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The effect of progesterone on electron emission and degradation of testosterone

DGYE-2010-0280 7

Getoff, Nikola (contact); Schittl, Heike; Gerschpacher, Marion; Hartmann, Johannes; Danielova, Iren; Quint, Ruth

Abstract: Based on recent findings that hormones can emit electrons (e-aq) from their excited singlet state in polar media, it was of importance to study a possible mutual interaction of progesterone (PRG) and testosterone (TES) in this respect.

Hormones of highest purity were dissolved in an air-free mixture of 40% triply distilled water and 60% ethanol, because the hormones are unsoluble in water. As energy source for substrate excitation in singlet state served a monochromatic UV-light (254 nm). The emitted electrons were scavenged by chloroethanol, whereby the quantum yield of produced Cl- ions, Q(Cl-), is equal to Q(e-aq). Hormone degradation initiated by the electron emission was studied by HPLC method, using a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 column (150×4.6mm, 5 µm).

The quantum yield of emitted e-aq, Q(e-aq), from TES was 3.6 times higher than that from PRG, which is explained by the different molecular structures of the hormones. Observed 2nd and 3rd maxima of electron emission indicate the ability of TES and PRG products to also eject e-aq, but with lower yield. It can be stated that a part of the emitted electrons from TES are consumed by PRG•+ leading to a partial regeneration of hormone. The present results offer a deeper insight in the biological behaviour of hormones.

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